Viola caucasica: Red Data Book of Armenia

CR B 1 ab(iii) + 2 ab(iii)

Category. Critically endangered species. Endemic of the Caucasus. In Armenia only one sub–population is known. The extent of occurrence and area of occupancy are less than 10 km2. The species faces decline of the extent of occurrence and the area of occupancy caused by changes in habitat conditions. It was included in the first edition of the Red Data Book of Armenia under Category 2: Rare species. It is not included in the Annexes of CITES and that of the Bern Convention.

Description. Perennial herb, 5–10 cm. Leaves rotundate, deeply emarginated at base, petiolate. Flowers 1–2, bright yellow.

Distribution. In Armenia it grows only in Zangezur floristic region (Khustup Mountain). AOO is 4 km2, the number of locations is 1. Besides Armenia the species grows in the Greater Caucasus, East and West Transcaucasia.

Ecological, biological and phytocoenological peculiarities. Grows in alpine belt, at the altitude of 2800–3100 meters above sea level, under the rocks, on the moist screes. Flowering in July, fruiting in July–August.

Limiting factors. Restricted extent of occurrence and area of occupancy, loss/degradation of habitats caused by climate change.

Conservation actions. No conservation actions. Necessary: monitoring of the population state, establishment of specially protected nature area on Khustup Mountain.

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