Orthilia secunda: Red Data Book of Armenia
EN* B 1 ab(iii) + 2 ab(iii)
Category. Endangered species. The extent of occurrence and the area of occupancy are less than 10 km2. Since the main area of distribution of the species is situated beyond the borders of Armenia the category of threat has been downgraded to EN. It was not included in the first edition of the Red Data Book of Armenia. It is not included in the Annexes of CITES and that of the Bern Convention.
Description. Perennial rhizomatous herb, 10–15 cm. Leaves oblong, acute, on petioles up to 1 cm long, congested at the stem base. Flowers actinomorphic, not large, in second raceme. Corolla greenish–white, almost globular.
Distribution. In Armenia it occurs only in Idjevan floristic region, in the neighborhoods of Margahovit village. AOO is 4 km2, the number of locations is 1. Besides Armenia it grows almost in the whole of Caucasus, Europe, Mediterranean Sea basin, North–East Anatolia, Siberia, Central and East Asia, North America.
Ecological, biological and phytocoenological peculiarities. Grows in middle mountain belt, at the altitudes of 1400–1800 meters above sea level, in the forests, meadows and swamped places. Flowering from June to July, fruiting from August to September.
Limiting factors. Restricted extent of occurrence and area of occupancy, loss/degradation of habitats caused by forestry activities and global climate change.
Conservation actions. No conservation actions. Necessary: monitoring of the population state.